With population explosions and the demands of modern lifestyles, the world’s need for energy production has become far too much for fossil fuels to keep up with. Basic Steps in Solar Energy Generation and Transmission. Analyzes the properties of organic solar cells, lithium ion batteries, light emitting diodes and the semiconductor materials for hydrogen production by water splitting. The earth will face an energy crisis in the near future if humans are not careful with their consumption. Solar technologies are also very expensive and require a lot of land... ...Li, 1 In the SunCatcher, the efficiency is around 30%, which means that 30% of the energy that … The fundamentals of solar energy and how its energy is extracted for power generation purposes. It aims to promote the expansion of solar photovoltaics from relatively small and specialized use to a large-scale contribution to energy supply. Solar Energy 01-15-2014 Rebekah Layton Solar Energy, a type of energy not extracted from the ground, but instead, emitted by the sun. In this course we'll examine the principal methods of harvesting energy from sunlight—concentrated solar power and photovoltaic cells—starting from fundamental physics principles. Solar Heating Principles; Solar Electricity Principles; What is Solar Energy? The photoelectric effect allows construction of the automatic door openers that work when you walk through a light beam. Jenny Nelson has provided a splendidly clear, concise and readable account of the basic semiconductor physics of the solar cell, complete with student exercises and solutions. Specifically for this investigation we will be determine both advantages and disadvantages of Solar Panels and Wind Turbines these are the most popular resource and infrastructure that relate to Wind and Solar... ...than enough energy to satisfy global energy needs for an entire year. Semiconductors have the capacity to absorb light and to deliver a portion of the energy of the absorbed photons to carriers of electrical current – electrons and holes. We can’t get very much power from PV cells yet, but the technology is improving all the time and although we’ll never be able to catch all the power from the Sun, we may be able to get enough to power some of our favourite devices. Unlike renewable energy sources, most of which are converted to power cleanly, the conversion of fossil fuels to energy harms the environment. What is solar energy? Most VitalSource eBooks are available in a reflowable EPUB format which allows you to resize text to suit you and enables other accessibility features. Ultimately, thermodynamic results are essential for other fields of physics and chemistry, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, and materials science to name a few. The Sun’s energy is produced by a process called nuclear fusion. Solar radiation. Debating which specific form of energy should be invested heavily in, in hope that carbon emissions and the use of coal will be reduced in the future (Clean Line, 2013). I. This paper will also address the cost advantages solar energy provides along with the environmental enhancements and energy reductions that are associated with solar power. UIT Cambridge, 2016. Covering 0.16% of the earth׳s surface with 10% efficient cells would provide electricity more than the current total energy demand of the planet. Today nearly half of the world’s energy is provided by petroleum. This new system absorbs more Plants, animal and the microbial life have been using it as a principle energy source since the times of creation. Although fossil fuels are currently the main source of energy; solar energy may one day replace fossil fuels in the future. Another academic book about solar semiconductor physics. His most well-known work is about the, mechanisms governing the operation of nanostructured, and solution-processed thin film solar cells. Physics of Solar Cells From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts 2nd, updated and expanded edition Problems and Solutions by Uli Würfel WILEY-VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA . Based on the highly successful German version, but thoroughly revised and updated, this edition contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion. The nuclear reaction releases energy that travels outward to the surface of the Sun. Mobile/eReaders – Download the Bookshelf mobile app at VitalSource.com or from the iTunes or Android store to access your eBooks from your mobile device or eReader. The Sun is a star and without it there would be no life on earth. Energy As this book is on Solar Energy, it is good to start the discussion with some general thoughts on Energy. People often think of solar energy as solar panels mounted on roofs in sunny neighborhoods. Embraces concepts from nanostructured and highly disordered materials to lead halide perovskite solar cells. Solar energy is lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source that is pollution and often noise free. With growing interest in the field of renewable energy, this may be a good opportunity to introduce your students to real-world applications of principles covered in class. When photons strike a For example, solar panels can … This is a common debatable topic within the Federal Government of Australia. Solar electricity, at between 5 and 10 times the cost of electricity from fossil fuels, supplies just 0.015% of the world's … Despite the enormous energy flux supplied by the Sun, the three conversion routes supply only a tiny fraction of our current and future energy needs. This paper will focus exclusively on solar energy as an effective improvement process. They can also be used to power devices such as calculators and watches. “Native Americans and the ancient Greek built their houses into the side of hills to take advantage of the heat storage from the sun during the day that would then be released during the... ...Which is the more viable energy source for Australia’s energy and needs, Wind or Solar? To avoid this disaster it is vital for us to utilize alternative sources of energy to its full potential. The thermodynamic study is of great importance in the case of thermal solar energy because this type of solar installation is based on heat exchange. Based on the highly successful German version, but thoroughly revised and updated, this edition contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion. Hello Select your address Best Sellers Today's Deals Electronics Customer Service Books New Releases Home Computers Gift Ideas Gift Cards Sell solar energy can be used to: Title. Uli Wurfel studied physics at the Universities of Freiburg and Heidelberg. The electricity generated flows to the edge of the panel, and into a conductive wire. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using … At it's simplest, solar energy is the light produced by the Sun. Solar energy project in Guyana Summary- A solar energy system will provide 1st ever electricity & HF radio communication for isolated village of 100 Amerindians; students/adults will benefit from DVD/TV educational & entertainment programs Potential Long Term Impact Solar energy/HF radio will improve quality of life for 100 persons in rainforest environment thru immediate … Iv Contents List of Symbols IX Preface XI 1 Problems of the Energy Economy 1 1.1 Energy Economy 1 1.2 Estimate of the Maximum Reserves of Fossil Energy 4 1.3 The Greenhouse Effect 6 1.3.1 … Solar energy facts Sunlight is composed of photons, which can be thought of as "packets" of energy (the amount of energy in a photon being proportional to the frequency of its light). and systematic experimental demonstration. Sunlight also provides vitamin D, which is necessary to human health. ...Solar Energy Renewable Energy ExamplesRenewable Energy SourcesRenewable Energy TypesImportant Questions According to a repor… Solar energy producers fall into two separate categories: thermal solar collectors and photovoltaic panels. For example, solar cells generate energy for far-out places like satellites in Earth orbit and cabins deep in the Rocky Mountains as easily as they can power downtown buildings and futuristic cars. Few examples of renewable energy are the sunlight, water, wind, tides, geothermal heat, and biomass. Further, as indicated by It presents theoretical approaches to efficient solar cell design and examines the main practical types of solar cell . They have many practical applications such as pool warmers and water heaters. The technology is also versatile. This energy can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. 2. * Solar energy makes life a reality. They make use of the concept of photovoltaic effect to generate electricity. For both formats the functionality available will depend on how you access the ebook (via Bookshelf Online in your browser or via the Bookshelf app on your PC or mobile device). 2-16-13 Try Prime Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Cart. By using a device called solar panel, we can easily convert the solar energy into electricity. Physics of solar energy / C. Julian Chen. * Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” change sunlight directly into electricity. Solar Energy Learn the physics of energy harvesting from our most renewable source, the Sun. p. cm. Peter Würfel describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. Conferences and is the president of the Fundacio Scito. It is environmentally healthier than... ... After driving its way through several layers of atmospheres to earth from about ninety-three million miles away, the land, water, and plants soak up about half of it while the other half makes its way back into space. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. Throughout this investigation the social and environmental relevance in relation to geology will be highlighted as well as which Alternative Energy of Wind and Solar will be a more viable option to be heavily invested in as well as relating it to ‘Australia’s energy consumption and/or needs’. Chapter: Electric Energy Generation and Utilisation and Conservation - Solar Radiation and Solar Energy Collectors | Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail | Posted On : 22.05.2017 04:15 pm . The concentrated heat energy of the sun hitting the receiver can be as much as 800 degrees Celsius! This is only part of solar energy (“Solar energy facts,”2012). Solar photovoltaic (PV) works on the principle of photoelectric effect. Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sun's energy and make it useable. This is why the Sun is called the ultimate source of energy. We can also... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. System requirements for Bookshelf for PC, Mac, IOS and Android etc. There is a fact, or if you wish, a law, governing all natural phenomena that are known to date. Plants and trees are pretty good at collecting this energy. Resources are diminishing quicker than the Earth can replenish them. Through photosynthesis, plants absorb sunlight and provide food and oxygen which animals consume to live. The physics principles here are straightforward. What is Solar Energy? Basic Steps in Solar Energy Generation and Transmission Sunlight hits the solar panels, and creates an electric field. It is in the form of heat and light. Introduces basic techniques and methods for understanding the materials and interfaces that compose operative energy devices such as solar cells and solar fuel converters. Final Draft The key principles underlying solar technology relate to the physics of light, which is defined as electromagnetic (EM) radiation that occurs as waves. He is a senior, editor of the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. An energy lower than the atomic ionization energy, known as the work function, is necessary to free an electron. In conclusion, this paper will analyze the future of solar power in regards to business and the long term effects this process will have on the world as a whole. This book is designed to give the reader a solid footing in the general and basic physics of solar energy, which will be the basis of research and development in new solar engineering technologies in the years to come. Solar energy can be defined as the technology used to exploit the sun’s power and make it usable. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. This limitation is overcome by the use of solar cells that convert solar energy into electrical energy. Solar energy offers a ubiquitous, inexhaustible, clean, and highly efficient way of meeting the energy needs of the twenty-first century. It is believed that the dominance of coal will be challenged by renewable energy e.g. A01_MAZU0862_02_SE_FM.indd 3 25/01/20 12:22 PM. Sunlight is composed of photons, which can be thought of as "packets" of energy (the amount of energy in a photon being proportional to the frequency of its light). New concepts have emerged forming a rather powerful picture embracing the mechanisms and limitation to efficiencies of different types of devices. Scientists and engineers are working on ways to do this and have developed photovoltaic cells, or PV cells for short, that can turn sunlight into electricity. Highlights recent rapid advances with the discovery of perovskite solar cells and their development. Solar Thermal/Electric Power Plants generate electricity by concentrating solar energy to heat a fluid and produce steam that is used to power a generator. With the help of green chlorophyll, they use light energy to make food – they’re our solar powered food factories. Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the Earth. Includes index. When light reaches the p-n junction, the light photons can easily enter in the junction, through very thin p-type layer.The light energy, in the form of photons, supplies sufficient energy to the junction to create a number of electron-hole pairs. Solar Energy is the energy from the Sun. Skip to main content. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The development of solar energy dates back to 400 B.C. Sunlight is a form of radiant energy that travels to the earth as electromagnetic waves. The solar panels use photons from the sun to generate electricity. Today, the technology produces less than one tenth of one percent of global energy demand. Volume 2 of Principles & Practice of Physics includes Chapters 22–34. In a single hour, the sun supplies enough solar energy to the earth to fulfill the world’s power needs for an entire year. Solar energy is the oldest energy source. Solar cell, also called photovoltaic cell, any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect.The overwhelming majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon—with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous (noncrystalline) to polycrystalline to crystalline (single crystal) silicon forms. ...Http://www.ei.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=solar_home-basics This course introduces the technology that converts solar energy into electricity, heat and solar fuels with a main focus on electricity generation. “Photovoltaics will play an increasingly important role in a future low-carbon energy economy. energizing Ohio for the 21st Century January 10, 2012 The University of Toledo, Department of Physics and Astronomy SSARE, PVIC Principles and Varieties of Solar Energy (PHYS 4400) Needless to say that the Sun is the biggest source of renewable energy for the Earth. When atoms are bound together, electrons become associated with the whole material. He received a PhD from the University of Freiburg in 2006. Since 2009 he is head of the group "dye and organic solar cells" at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg. * Heat spaces — inside homes, greenhouses, and other buildings Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. Along the way to the surface the energy transforms so that by the time it is released it is primarily light energy. He, has been distinguished several times in the list of ISI, Highly Cited Researchers. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Products > Solar Energy > Our Solar Power Spirit > About Solar Energy > Science Behind the Solar Cell : Science Behind the Solar Cell Converting Sunlight Into Electricity: Solar Cell (multicrystalline silicon) Photovoltaic modules, commonly called solar modules, are the key components used to convert sunlight into electricity. Solar Electricity Principles Solar electric systems use solar cells to convert the Sun's radiant energy into electricity. Solar Energy: Powering Our Future Our Earth's resorvoir of resources seem to be limitless, but with the exponential growth of the human population; the need for efficient alternative energy sources is becoming urgent. Volume 1 of Principles & Practice of Physics includes Chapters 1–21. 3. Physics of Solar Cells: From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts by Peter Würfel. Solar … The first kind of energy to be recognized was kinetic energy, or energy of motion. Since a solar cell only generates about 1-2 Watts of power, it is necessary to combine them into solar power panels in order to generate more power. Preface........................................................................................................................................................................xv, Acknowledgments....................................................................................................................................................xvii, Author.......................................................................................................................................................................xix, Chapter 1 Introduction to Energy Devices...............................................................................................................1, References...............................................................................................................................................9, Chapter 2 Electrostatic and Thermodynamic Potentials of Electrons in Materials...............................................13, 2.1 Electrostatic Potential..................................................................................................................13, 2.2 Energies of Free Electrons and Holes.......................................................................................... 14, 2.3 Potential Energy of the Electrons in the Semiconductor............................................................. 17, 2.4 The Vacuum Level....................................................................................................................... 17, 2.5 The Fermi Level and the Work Function....................................................................................20, 2.6 The Chemical Potential of Electrons........................................................................................... 21, 2.7 Potential Step of a Dipole Layer or a Double Layer....................................................................23, 2.8 Origin of Surface Dipoles............................................................................................................24, 2.9 The Volta Potential......................................................................................................................25, 2.10 Equalization of Fermi Levels of Two Electronic Conductors in Contact....................................27, 2.11 Equilibration of Metal Junctions and the Contact Potential Difference......................................28, 2.12 Equilibrium across the Semiconductor Junction.........................................................................29, General References............................................................................................................................... 31, References............................................................................................................................................. 31, Chapter 3 Voltage, Capacitors, and Batteries.........................................................................................................33, 3.1 The Voltage in the Device...........................................................................................................33, 3.2 Anode and Cathode.....................................................................................................................34, 3.3 Applied Voltage and Potential Difference...................................................................................35, 3.4 The Capacitor..............................................................................................................................37, 3.5 Measurement of the Capacitance.................................................................................................38, 3.6 Energy Storage in the Capacitor..................................................................................................40, 3.7 Electrochemical Systems: Structure of the Metal/Solution Interface..........................................40, 3.8 Electrode Potential and Reference Electrodes.............................................................................42, 3.9 Redox Potential in Electrochemical Cells...................................................................................44, 3.10 Electrochemical and Physical Scales of Electron Energy in Material Systems..........................45, 3.11 Changes of Electrolyte Levels with pH.......................................................................................46, 3.12 Principles of Electrochemical Batteries.......................................................................................47, 3.13 Capacity and Energy Content......................................................................................................50, 3.14 Practical Electrochemical Batteries............................................................................................. 51, 3.14.1 Zinc-Silver Battery.......................................................................................................... 51, 3.14.2 Sodium-Sulfur Battery....................................................................................................52, 3.15 Li-Ion Battery.............................................................................................................................. 53, General References...............................................................................................................................57, References.............................................................................................................................................57, Chapter 4 Work Functions and Injection Barriers.................................................................................................59, 4.1 Injection to Vacuum in Thermionic Emission.............................................................................59, 4.2 Richardson–Dushman Equation..................................................................................................60, 4.3 Kelvin Probe Method.................................................................................................................. 61, 4.4 Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy.........................................................................................63, 4.5 Injection Barriers.........................................................................................................................66, 4.6 Pinning of the Fermi Level and Charge-Neutrality Level...........................................................69, General References...............................................................................................................................73, References.............................................................................................................................................73, Chapter 5 Thermal Distribution of Electrons, Holes, and Ions in Solids............................................................... 75, 5.1 Equilibration of the Electrochemical Potential of Electrons....................................................... 75, 5.2 Configurational Entropy of Weakly Interacting Particles...........................................................76, 5.3 Equilibrium Occupancy of Conduction Band and Valence Band States.....................................76, 5.4 Equilibrium Fermi Level and the Carrier Number in Semiconductors.......................................79, 5.5 Transparent Conducting Oxides.................................................................................................. 81, 5.6 Hot Electrons...............................................................................................................................82, 5.7 Screening.....................................................................................................................................84, 5.8 The Rectifier at Forward and Reverse Voltage............................................................................85, 5.9 Semiconductor Devices as Thermal Machines that Realize Useful Work..................................88, 5.10 Cell Potential in the Lithium Ion Battery....................................................................................90, 5.11 Insertion of Ions: The Lattice Gas Model....................................................................................94, General References...............................................................................................................................98, References.............................................................................................................................................98, Chapter 6 Interfacial Kinetics and Hopping Transitions...................................................................................... 101, 6.1 Principle of Detailed Balance.................................................................................................... 101, 6.2 Form of the Transition Rates.....................................................................................................104, 6.3 Kinetics of Localized States: Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination Model...............................106, 6.4 Reorganization Effects in Charge Transfer: The Marcus Model............................................... 107, 6.5 Polaron Hopping........................................................................................................................ 112, 6.6 Rate of Electrode Reaction: Butler-Volmer Equation................................................................ 115, 6.6.1 Availability of Electronic Species................................................................................. 116, 6.6.2 Availability of Redox Species........................................................................................ 116, 6.6.3 The Kinetic Constant for Charge Transfer.................................................................... 117, 6.7 Electron Transfer at Metal-Semiconductor Contact..................................................................120, 6.8 Electron Transfer at the Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface.................................................. 121, General References.............................................................................................................................126, References...........................................................................................................................................127, Chapter 7 The Chemical Capacitance.................................................................................................................. 131, 7.1 Carrier Accumulation and Energy Storage in the Chemical Capacitance................................. 131, 7.2 Localized Electronic States in Disordered Materials and Surface States................................. 133, 7.3 Chemical Capacitance of a Single State.................................................................................... 135, 7.4 Chemical Capacitance of a Broad DOS.................................................................................... 136, 7.5 Filling a DOS with Carriers: The Voltage and the Conductivity.............................................. 138, 7.6 Chemical Capacitance of Li Intercalation Materials................................................................. 139, 7.7 Chemical Capacitance of Graphene.......................................................................................... 140, General References............................................................................................................................. 142, References........................................................................................................................................... 143, Chapter 8 The Density of States in Disordered Inorganic and Organic Conductors........................................... 145, 8.1 Capacitive and Reactive Current in Cyclic Voltammetry.......................................................... 145, 8.2 Kinetic Effects in CV Response................................................................................................ 149, 8.3 The Exponential DOS in Amorphous Semiconductors.............................................................150, 8.4 The Exponential DOS in Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides.......................................................... 152, 8.5 Basic Properties of Organic Layers........................................................................................... 156, 8.6 The Gaussian DOS.................................................................................................................... 160, General References............................................................................................................................. 162, References........................................................................................................................................... 163, Chapter 9 Planar and Nanostructured Semiconductor Junctions......................................................................... 167, 9.1 Structure of the Schottky Barrier at a Metal/Semiconductor Contacts..................................... 167, 9.2 Changes of the Schottky Barrier by the Applied Voltage.......................................................... 168, 9.3 Properties of the Planar Depletion Layer.................................................................................. 170, 9.4 Mott–Schottky Plots.................................................................................................................. 171, 9.5 Capacitance Response of Defect Levels and Surface States..................................................... 172, 9.6 Semiconductor Electrodes and the Flatband Potential.............................................................. 173, 9.7 Changes of Redox Level and Band Unpinning.......................................................................... 176, 9.8 Inversion and Accumulation Layer............................................................................................ 180, 9.9 Heterojunctions.......................................................................................................................... 181, 9.10 Effect of Voltage on Highly Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors...................................... 183, 9.11 Homogeneous Carrier Accumulation in Low-Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors........... 188, General References............................................................................................................................. 192, References........................................................................................................................................... 192, Chapter 10 Carrier Injection and Drift Transport.................................................................................................. 197, 10.1 Transport by Drift in the Electrical Field.................................................................................. 197, 10.2 Injection at Contacts.................................................................................................................. 198, 10.3 The Metal-Insulator-Metal Model.............................................................................................202, 10.4 The Time-of-Flight Method......................................................................................................205, General References.............................................................................................................................206, References...........................................................................................................................................206, Chapter 11 Diffusion Transport.............................................................................................................................209, 11.1 Diffusion in the Random Walk Model......................................................................................209, 11.2 Macroscopic Diffusion Equation............................................................................................... 211, 11.3 The Diffusion Length................................................................................................................ 212, 11.4 Chemical Diffusion Coefficient and the Thermodynamic Factor............................................. 213, General References............................................................................................................................. 215, References........................................................................................................................................... 215, Chapter 12 Drift-Diffusion Transport.................................................................................................................... 217, 12.1 General Transport Equation in Terms of Electrochemical Potential......................................... 217, 12.2 The Transport Resistance.......................................................................................................... 217, 12.3 The Einstein Relation................................................................................................................ 219, 12.4 Drift-Diffusion Equations..........................................................................................................220, 12.5 Ambipolar Diffusion Transport................................................................................................221, 12.6 Relaxation of Injected Charge..................................................................................................222, 12.7 Transient Current in Insulator Layers.......................................................................................223, 12.8 Modeling Transport Problems..................................................................................................224, General References.............................................................................................................................227, References...........................................................................................................................................227, Chapter 13 Transport in Disordered Media...........................................................................................................229, 13.1 Multiple Trapping and Hopping Transport...............................................................................229, 13.2 Transport by Hopping in a Single Level...................................................................................231, 13.3 Trapping Factors in the Kinetic Constants...............................................................................233, 13.4 Two-Level (Single-Trap) Model................................................................................................235, 13.5 Multiple Trapping in Exponential DOS....................................................................................237, 13.6 Activated Transport in a Gaussian DOS...................................................................................237, 13.7 Multiple Trapping in the Time Domain....................................................................................239, 13.8 Hopping Conductivity...............................................................................................................241, 13.9 The Transport Energy...............................................................................................................242, 13.10 Variable Range Hopping...........................................................................................................243, General References.............................................................................................................................245, References...........................................................................................................................................245, Chapter 14 Thin Film Transistors..........................................................................................................................249, 14.1 Organic Thin Film Transistors.................................................................................................249, 14.2 Carrier Density in the Channel.................................................................................................250, 14.3 Determination of the DOS in Thin Film Transistor Configuration..........................................252, 14.4 Current-Voltage Characteristics................................................................................................255, 14.5 The Mobility in Disordered Semiconductors............................................................................257, 14.6 Electrochemical Transistor.......................................................................................................258, General References.............................................................................................................................259, References...........................................................................................................................................259, Chapter 15 Space-Charge-Limited Transport........................................................................................................263, 15.1 Space-Charge-Limited Current................................................................................................263, 15.2 Injected Carrier Capacitance in SCLC.....................................................................................265, 15.3 Space Charge in Double Injection............................................................................................267, General References.............................................................................................................................269, References...........................................................................................................................................269, Chapter 16 Impedance and Capacitance Spectroscopies....................................................................................... 271, 16.1 Frequency Domain Measurements...........................................................................................271, 16.2 Dielectric Relaxation Functions................................................................................................272, 16.3 Resistance and Capacitance in Equivalent Circuit Models.......................................................274, 16.4 Relaxation in Time Domain......................................................................................................279, 16.5 Universal Properties of the Frequency-Dependent Conductivity..............................................281, 16.6 Electrode Polarization...............................................................................................................283, General References.............................................................................................................................284, References...........................................................................................................................................284, PART III Radiation, Light, and Semiconductors, Chapter 17 Blackbody Radiation and Light...........................................................................................................289, 17.1 Photons and Light......................................................................................................................289, 17.2 Spread and Direction of Radiation............................................................................................289, 17.3 Color and Photometry................................................................................................................ 291, 17.4 Blackbody Radiation.................................................................................................................293, 17.5 The Planck Spectrum................................................................................................................294, 17.6 The Energy Density of The Distribution of Photons in Blackbody Radiation..........................295, 17.7 The Photon and Energy Fluxes in Blackbody Radiation...........................................................297, 17.8 The Solar Spectrum...................................................................................................................299, General References.............................................................................................................................302, References...........................................................................................................................................302, Chapter 18 Light Absorption, Carrier Recombination, and Luminescence...........................................................305, 18.1 Absorption of Incident Radiation..............................................................................................305, 18.2 Luminescence and Energy Transfer..........................................................................................307, 18.3 The Quantum Efficiency........................................................................................................... 310, 18.4 The Recombination of Carriers in Semiconductors.................................................................. 311, 18.5 Recombination Lifetime............................................................................................................ 314, General References............................................................................................................................. 316, References........................................................................................................................................... 316, Chapter 19 Optical Transitions in Organic and Inorganic Semiconductors.......................................................... 319, 19.1 Light Absorption in Inorganic Solids........................................................................................ 319, 19.2 Free Carrier Phenomena............................................................................................................323, 19.3 Excitons.....................................................................................................................................325, 19.4 Quantum Dots...........................................................................................................................328, 19.5 Organic Molecules and Materials..............................................................................................330, 19.6 The CT Band in Organic Blends and Heterojunctions.............................................................. 333, General References............................................................................................................................. 336, References........................................................................................................................................... 336, PART IV Photovoltaic Principles and Solar Energy Conversion, Chapter 20 Fundamental Model of a Solar Cell....................................................................................................343, 20.1 Majority Carrier Injection Mechanisms....................................................................................343, 20.2 Majority Carrier Devices...........................................................................................................344, 20.3 Minority Carrier Devices..........................................................................................................345, 20.4 Fundamental Properties of a Solar Cell.....................................................................................346, 20.5 Physical Properties of Selective Contacts in Solar Cells...........................................................348, General References............................................................................................................................. 351, References........................................................................................................................................... 351, Chapter 21 Recombination Current in the Semiconductor Diode......................................................................... 353, 21.1 Dark Equilibrium of Absorption and Emission of Radiation.................................................... 353, 21.2 Recombination Current............................................................................................................. 355, 21.3 Dark Characteristics of Diode Equation.................................................................................... 356, 21.4 Light-Emitting Diodes............................................................................................................... 357, 21.5 Dye Sensitization and Molecular Diodes...................................................................................360, General References.............................................................................................................................363, References...........................................................................................................................................363, Chapter 22 Radiative Equilibrium in a Semiconductor.........................................................................................365, 22.1 Utilization of Solar Photons......................................................................................................365, 22.2 Fundamental Radiative Carrier Lifetime..................................................................................368, 22.3 Radiative Emission of a Semiconductor Layer..........................................................................369, 22.4 Photons at Nonzero Chemical Potential.................................................................................... 370, General References............................................................................................................................. 373, References........................................................................................................................................... 373, Chapter 23 Reciprocity Relations in Solar Cells and Fundamental Limits to the Photovoltage ........................... 375, 23.1 The Reciprocity between LED and Photovoltaic Performance Parameters.............................. 375, 23.2 Factors Determining the Photovoltage...................................................................................... 378, 23.3 External Radiative Efficiency....................................................................................................382, 23.4 Photon Recycling.......................................................................................................................383, 23.5 Radiative Cooling in EL and Photoluminescence.....................................................................386, 23.6 Reciprocity of Absorption and Emission in a CT Band............................................................387, General References............................................................................................................................. 391, References...........................................................................................................................................392, Chapter 24 Charge Separation and Material Limits to the Photovoltage...............................................................395, 24.1 Light Absorption........................................................................................................................395, 24.2 Charge Separation.....................................................................................................................395, 24.3 Materials Limits to the Photovoltage.........................................................................................398, General References.............................................................................................................................403, References...........................................................................................................................................404, Chapter 25 Operation of Solar Cells and Fundamental Limits to Their Performance..........................................407, 25.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics.................................................................................................407, 25.2 Power Conversion Efficiency.....................................................................................................408, 25.3 Analysis of FF........................................................................................................................... 410, 25.4 Shockley–Queisser Efficiency Limits........................................................................................ 412, 25.5 Practical Solar Cells Efficiency Limits...................................................................................... 413, General References............................................................................................................................. 419, References........................................................................................................................................... 419, Chapter 26 Charge Collection in Solar Cells......................................................................................................... 421, 26.1 Introduction to Charge Collection Properties............................................................................ 421, 26.2 Charge Collection Distance.......................................................................................................422, 26.3 General Modeling Equations.....................................................................................................424, 26.4 The Boundary Conditions.........................................................................................................425, 26.4.1 Charge Extraction Boundary Condition........................................................................426, 26.4.2 Blocking Boundary Condition.......................................................................................427, 26.4.3 Generalized Boundary Conditions................................................................................428, 26.5 A Photovoltaic Model with Diffusion and Recombination........................................................429, 26.6 The Gärtner Model.................................................................................................................... 433, 26.7 Diffusion-Recombination and Collection in the Space-Charge Region.................................... 435, 26.8 Solar Cell Simulation................................................................................................................. 436, 26.9 Classification of Solar Cells....................................................................................................... 437, 26.10 Measuring and Reporting Solar Cell Efficiencies..................................................................... 439, General References.............................................................................................................................442, References...........................................................................................................................................442, Chapter 27 Spectral Harvesting and Photoelectrochemical Conversion................................................................445, 27.1 Conversion of Photon Frequencies for Solar Energy Harvesting..............................................445, 27.2 Tandem Solar Cells....................................................................................................................448, 27.3 Solar Fuel Generation................................................................................................................450, General References.............................................................................................................................456, References...........................................................................................................................................456, Appendix................................................................................................................................................................. 459, Index........................................................................................................................................................................463, conductors, and solar fuel converters based on, visible light and semiconductors for water splitting and, CO2 reduction. 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